Hericium Erinaceus (Lion's Mane Mushroom)

A fungus revered for its' culinary flavor as well as its' medicinal properties. A unique, beautiful, long toothed fungus, that forms a cascading waterfall of strands. The fruiting body of lions mane fungus is well known for it's lobster or crab like flavor. 

Some compounds of use found within the Hericium erinaceus are polysaccharides and secondary metabolites such as erinacines, hericerins, hericenones, resorcinols, steroids, mono- and diterpenes, and volatile aroma compounds, nutritional composition, food and industrial uses, dietary supplements and exceptional nutritional and health-promoting aspects of H. erinaceus.
lions mane mushroom growing next to fern

Benefits of Lion's Mane Mushroom

  1. Hericenone(lion's mane mushroom compound) E was able to stimulate NGF(Nerve growth factor) secretion which was two-fold higher than that of the positive control[1]. NGF is involved in the regulation of growth, maintenance, proliferation, and survival of certain target neurons which can undergo apoptosis in its absence.
  2. Preclinical studies have shown that there can be improvements in ischemic stroke, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and depression if H. erinaceus mycelia enriched with erinacines are included in daily meals[2].
  3. Studies have shown therapeutic potential against cancers of gastric, liver, colon, leukemia, melanoma, skin cancer, lung, breast and prostate cancer [3,4].
  4. (HEP3) isolated from Hericium erinaceus could improve the immune system via regulating the composition and metabolism of gut microbiota to activate the proliferation and differentiation of T cells, stimulate the intestinal antigen-presenting cells in high-dose cyclophosphamide-induced immunotoxicity in mice, and play a prebiotic role in the case of excessive antibiotics in inflammatory bowel disease model mice. Experiments also showed that HEP3 could be used as an antitumor immune inhibitor in tumor-burdened mice.[5].
  5. Findings suggest strongly that this mushroom species could aid greatly in preventing oxidative stress-induced atherosclerotic pathogenesis and thus is of immense importance for the people suffering from cardiovascular complications and strokes.[6].
  6. Reduce oxidative damage-associated diseases[7].
  7. May provide neuroprotective candidates for treating or preventing neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease.[8].
  8. Promoting neurite outgrowth activity[9].
  9. Anti-inflammatory effects of lion's mane mushroom[10].
  10. Hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant properties in STZ-induced diabetes rats.[11].
  11. Hericium erinaceus effectively delayed the increase in blood lattice acid, reduced the catabolism of protein for energy and increased the adaptive capacity to exercise load, which ultimately postponed the appearance of physical fatigue[12].
  12. Showed strong activity on antioxidant in vitro and potent hepatoprotective effect in vivo and the hepatoprotective effect may be due to its potent antioxidant capacity[13].
  13. Reduces Anxiety and depressive behaviors by Promoting hippocampal neurogenesis[14].
  14. Significantly increased scores on the cognitive function scale compared with the placebo group[15].
  15. Anti-microbial, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, wound healing properties among other therapeutic potentials [16]. 
  16. Studies with Hericium erinaceus mycelium have shown improvements with ischemic strokes[17].
  17. Neuroprotective activity of erinacine A of the Hericium erinaceus mycelium, may be promising candidates for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease[18].
  18. Evidence that Hericium erinaceus may serve as a neuroprotective candidate for treating or preventing neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease[19].
  19. Hericium erinaceus intake has the possibility to reduce depression and anxiety[20].
  20. H. erinaceus promoted normal development of cultivated cerebellar cells and demonstrated a regulatory effect on the process of myelin genesis[21].
  21. Hericium erinaceus Improves mood and sleep disorders in patients affected by overweight or obesity[22].

Hericium Erinaceus Side Effects 

  1. Study provides evidence that oral administration of Hericium erinaceus is safe up to 1000mg/kg and H. erinaceus consumption is relatively non-toxic[23]. 
  2. In a animal study an extract of panax ginseng and Hericium erinaceum was given to rats and found safe and non-toxic in these studies and a no-observed adverse effect level in rats was established at 5000 mg/kg/day[24].
  3. Another study on rats showed no-observed-adverse-effect level of erinacine A-enriched H.erinaceus is greater than 3g/kgbody weight/day[25].

Reference List

  1. Phan CW, Lee GS, Hong SL, Wong YT, Brkljača R, Urban S, Abd Malek SN, Sabaratnam V. Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr) Pers. cultivated under tropical conditions: isolation of hericenones and demonstration of NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells via MEK/ERK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. Food & function 2014;5(12):3160-9. PMID 25288148
  2. Li IC, Lee LY, Tzeng TT, Chen WP, Chen YP, Shiao YJ, Chen CC. Neurohealth Properties of Hericium erinaceus Mycelia Enriched with Erinacines. Behavioural neurology 2018;2018:5802634. PMID 29951133
  3. Blagodatski A, Yatsunskaya M, Mikhailova V, Tiasto V, Kagansky A, Katanaev VL. Medicinal mushrooms as an attractive new source of natural compounds for future cancer therapy. Oncotarget 2018;9(49):29259-74. PMID 30018750
  4. Kim SP, Nam SH, Friedman M. Hericium erinaceus (Lion's Mane) mushroom extracts inhibit metastasis of cancer cells to the lung in CT-26 colon cancer-tansplanted mice. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2013;61(20):4898-904. PMID 23668749
  5. Diling C, Chaoqun Z, Jian Y, Jian L, Jiyan S, Yizhen X, Guoxiao L. Immunomodulatory Activities of a Fungal Protein Extracted from Hericium erinaceus through Regulating the Gut Microbiota. Frontiers in immunology 2017;8:666. PMID 28713364
  6. Gahrn-Hansen B, Lundkvist L, Nielsen E. Pyomyositis and probable toxic shock syndrome caused by a toxin-1 producing strain of Staphylococcus aureus. European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology 1989;8(1):89-90. PMID 24959591
  7. Jiang S, Wang Y, Zhang X. Comparative studies on extracts from Hericium erinaceus by different polarity reagents to gain higher antioxidant activities. Experimental and therapeutic medicine 2016;12(1):513-7. PMID 27347087
  8. Zhang J, An S, Hu W, Teng M, Wang X, Qu Y, Liu Y, Yuan Y, Wang D. The Neuroprotective Properties of Hericium erinaceus in Glutamate-Damaged Differentiated PC12 Cells and an Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model. International journal of molecular sciences 2016;17(11):E1810. PMID 27809277
  9. Lai PL, Naidu M, Sabaratnam V, Wong KH, David RP, Kuppusamy UR, Abdullah N, Malek SN. Neurotrophic properties of the Lion's mane medicinal mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes) from Malaysia. International journal of medicinal mushrooms 2013;15(6):539-54. PMID 24266378
  10. Mori K, Ouchi K, Hirasawa N. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Lion's Mane Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes) in a Coculture System of 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and RAW264 Macrophages. International journal of medicinal mushrooms 2015;17(7):609-18. PMID 26559695
  11. Liang B, Guo Z, Xie F, Zhao A. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus in experimental diabetic rats. BMC complementary and alternative medicine 2013;13:253. PMID 24090482
  12. Liu J, Du C, Wang Y, Yu Z. Anti-fatigue activities of polysaccharides extracted from . Exp Ther Med. 2015;9(2):483-487. PMID 25574220 
  13. Zhang Z, Lv G, Pan H, Pandey A, He W, Fan L. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of endo-polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus grown on tofu whey. International journal of biological macromolecules 2012;51(5):1140-6. PMID 22982810
  14. Ryu S, Kim HG, Kim JY, Kim SY, Cho KO. Hericium erinaceus Extract Reduces Anxiety and Depressive Behaviors by Promoting Hippocampal Neurogenesis in the Adult Mouse Brain. Journal of medicinal food 2018;21(2):174-80. PMID 29091526
  15. Mori K, Inatomi S, Ouchi K, Azumi Y, Tuchida T. Improving effects of the mushroom Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceus) on mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytotherapy research : PTR 2009;23(3):367-72. PMID 18844328
  16. Khan MA, Tania M, Liu R, Rahman MM. Hericium erinaceus: an edible mushroom with medicinal values. J Complement Integr Med. 2013;10. PMID 23735479
  17. Lee KF, Chen JH, Teng CC, Shen CH, Hsieh MC, Lu CC, Lee KC, Lee LY, Chen WP, Chen CC, Huang WS, Kuo HC. Protective effects of Hericium erinaceus mycelium and its isolated erinacine A against ischemia-injury-induced neuronal cell death via the inhibition of iNOS/p38 MAPK and nitrotyrosine. International journal of molecular sciences 2014;15(9):15073-89. PMID 25167134
  18. Kuo HC, Lu CC, Shen CH, et al. Hericium erinaceus mycelium and its isolated erinacine A protection from MPTP-induced neurotoxicity through the ER stress, triggering an apoptosis cascade. J Transl Med. 2016;14:78. PMID 26988860
  19. Zhang J, An S, Hu W, et al. The Neuroprotective Properties of Hericium erinaceus in Glutamate-Damaged Differentiated PC12 Cells and an Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17(11). PMID 27809277
  20. Nagano M, Shimizu K, Kondo R, Hayashi C, Sato D, Kitagawa K, Ohnuki K. Reduction of depression and anxiety by 4 weeks Hericium erinaceus intake. Biomedical research (Tokyo, Japan) 2010;31(4):231-7. PMID 20834180
  21. Kolotushkina EV, Moldavan MG, Voronin KY, Skibo GG. The influence of Hericium erinaceus extract on myelination process in vitro. Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal (Kiev, Ukraine : 1994) 2003;49(1):38-45. PMID 12675022
  22. Vigna L, Morelli F, Agnelli GM, Napolitano F, Ratto D, Occhinegro A, Di Iorio C, Savino E, Girometta C, Brandalise F, Rossi P. Hericium erinaceus Improves Mood and Sleep Disorders in Patients Affected by Overweight or Obesity: Could Circulating Pro-BDNF and BDNF Be Potential Biomarkers. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM 2019;2019:7861297. PMID 31118969
  23. Lakshmanan H, Raman J, David P, Wong KH, Naidu M, Sabaratnam V. Haematological, biochemical and histopathological aspects of Hericium erinaceus ingestion in a rodent model: A sub-chronic toxicological assessment. Journal of ethnopharmacology 2016;194:1051-9. PMID 27816657
  24. Park ID, Yoo HS, Lee YW, Son CG, Kwon M, Sung HJ, Cho CK. Toxicological study on MUNOPHIL, water extract of Panax ginseng and Hericium erinaceum in rats. Journal of acupuncture and meridian studies 2008;1(2):121-7. PMID 20633464
  25. Li IC, Chen YL, Lee LY, Chen WP, Tsai YT, Chen CC, Chen CS. Evaluation of the toxicological safety of erinacine A-enriched Hericium erinaceus in a 28-day oral feeding study in Sprague-Dawley rats. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 2014;70:61-7. PMID 24810469